Geographical & Physical Features
The area of the district is 3432 sq.km. and ranks at 32nd among other districts of the state. Dausa district is the one of smallest district of Rajasthan by an area. The district has a roughly semi-circular or C-shape broadest the centre and tapering towards east and west. Physiographically the most part of the terrain is plain intersected with several ranges of Aravali hills running from north-northeast to south-southwest. Hills of the district are parts or branches of the north Aravali ranges.
The Lalsot-Bayana Hill range forms important physiographic features of the district. This range runs from Lalsot to Bayana demarcate the boundary between Dausa and Sawai Madhopur. The Aravali exposures have a perfect concordant sequence of beds from Lalsot to Bayana ridge. A belt of crystalline quartzite is found in hills from Dausa to Bhankari, schistose quartzite is also predominately exposed.
A large part of the district is covered by a thick mantle of soil blown sand alluvium. The east and the north of quadrilateral circle of Dausa district are covered by hill ranges rising to over 200 mtr. above the surrounding plains.
There is no perennial river in the district and thus district is depend wholly on rainy water. The water arrangements are being done by seasonal rivers, streams and allied rivers. There are two rivers - Ban Ganga and Morel, which runs in most of the area of Dausa district. There are 36 dams in the district. The major dams are Sainthal Sagar, Kalakho Bandh, Madhosagar Bandh and Moral Bandh. The total capacity of dams are 7074 MCFT.
In district, except short duration of rainy season, the climate mostly remains dry.
The temperature in winter is favourable for crops of wheat, barley, mustard and gram. However the acute coldness sometimes hampers mustard.
The annual normal rainfall of the district is 561 mm. The rainy season remain active from 2nd week of July to 3rd week of September in the district. The south-west monsoon takes place during this period.
FOREST, FLORA & FAUNA
Dausa district falls under Indus Plains floristic region of India. Each region has its distinctive species. According to Department of Forest, annual report 2012-13, the total forest area of the district is 284.49 sq.km. that is 8.29% of total geographical area.
Subsidiary edaphic types of dry tropical forests are found in the district where Dhok or Dhokra (Anogeissus pendula) is the most common tree. Other species found are Adoosa (Adhatoda vasica); Gurjan (Lannea coromandelia); Khirni (Wrightia tinctoria). Salar (Boswellia serrata); Jhingha (Bauhinia recemosa); Babul (Acacia arabica); Siris (Albizzia lebbek); Bar (Ficus Bengalensis); Gular (Ficus recemosa); Pipal (Ficus religiosa); Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo). Peelu (Salvadera Oleoides); Hingota (Balanites aegyptica); Karaya (Sterculia urens); Khejra (Prosopls spicigera); Khair (Acacia catechu); and Jamun (Syzygium cumini). The timber obtained from the forests of the district is utilised for the manufacture of agricultural implements besides being used for roofing as well as for fuel purposes and for agricultural equipments.
The district is endowed with a variety of habitats. The district, although not rich in dense forest growth, it sustains considerable biological diversity. As far as the faunal regions are concerned, the district falls under Oriental region. Of the characteristic wildlife of the region, the wild animals still surviving in the district include the monkey, lemur (langoor), panther, black buck & the peafowl. Various types of fishes are also found in the tanks and bunds of district.
MINERAL AND MINING
The district having pre-Aravali quartzite's which are considered to be nearly 2,500 million-year-old. These rocks are mostly covered under a mental of sand and alluvium. With a major unconformity these rocks are of Delhi super sub group, which is made up of Raialo, Alwar and Ajabgarh groups. The Alwar group consists of conglomeritic quartzites and schists, whereas the Ajabgarh group is mainly made up of schists, phylites marble and quartzites.
Primary minerals found in the district are silica sand, soap stone, dolomite and quartzite, whereas in secondary minerals - missionary stones, kankar, bajri, marble block, kharda, patti-katla slate stone and bricks are found.
Metallic minerals ore is found in Lalsot and Bandikui panchayat samities of the district, whereas in non-metallic minerals - glass sand, and soap stone mare found in Khawa Rao ji, Bandikui and Geejgarh, dolomite in Sikrai, Lalsot and Bandikui; and Silica in Bharkri area. Apart from this, sand stone, lime stone, silica and building stone are found in huge quantity in various parts of the district.
The soil of the district is yellowish to dark brown dominantly fine textured,
generally suitable for all type of crops. Further, watershed scheme has been
implemented in the district to avoid erosion.
The main crop of the district is the Rabi crop grown in the month of October and harvested in March. During Kharif, the groundnut crop is produced in irrigated areas. Maize also requires irrigation. Generally other crops are sown at the commencement of the rainy season. Groundnut, Maize and Cotton are sown by broadcasting the seeds. Fertilizer is applied before sowing of groundnut and cotton.
During Rabi, the mustard and gram is sown from September to October, in unirrigated land, while in the irrigated land, barley, gram and mustard are sown in October-November and wheat in November-December. The district has double cropped area with the crop cycle as moong-wheat, groundnut-wheat, moong-mustard, bajra-mustard, bajra-gram etc. The principal crop of the district in Kharif is Bajra. The most important food grain crop in Rabi is wheat.
Many ‘krishi upaj mandi’ have been setup by the state agriculture marketing department for the regular sell and marketing of agriculture produce. Certified seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and agricultural implements are being made available to farmers in these mandies. Bandikui, Dausa, Lalsot, Lalsot (Mandawari), Mahuwa Mandawar are APMC (Agriculture Produce Market Committee) markets of the district.